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Kings and Queens

King Henry VIII

King Henry VIII
King Henry VIII of England is perhaps the most notorious of Englandís Kings. Best known for having six wives and removing the Church of England from the control of the Pope, Henry VIII also increased royal power by using accusations of treason and heresy to banish and execute those that opposed him. Henry VIII was born on June 28, 1491, in Greenwich Palace, Kent. After the death of his elder brother Arthur in 1502, Henry became the heir to the English throne which he ascended on April 21, 1509. His first marriage was to Arthurís widow, Catherine of Aragon. This marriage ended in annulment in 1533. His second wife Anne Boleyn was executed in 1536, his third wife Jane Seymour died in 1537. Henry VIII divorced his fourth wife, Anne of Cleves, in 1540, he executed his fifth wife Catherine Howard in 1542 and his sixth wife, Catherine Parr, outlived him. One of Henry VIIIís legacies was the formation of the Royal Navy. During Henryís reign he increased the number of ships from five to more than forty. The Mary Rose and Henry Grace ŗ dieu were two of his more famous ships. Henry VIII died in London on January 28, 1547.

 
King Edward VI

King Edward VI
Edward VI was born at Hampton Court Palace on October 12, 1537, and his mother, Queen Jane Seymour, died just 12 days later. Edward succeeded his father Henry VIII as King of England on January 28, 1547, although, as he never reached his majority, a Regency Council of sixteen governed the kingdom. The Regency Council appointed Edward Seymour Lord Protector of the Realm and Governor of the Kingís Person, effectively giving him control of the kingdom. In 1547, Henry VIII's great ship Henry Grace ŗ Dieu was renamed by Edward VI. After a period of rebellion broke out across England, Edward Seymour was blamed for the unrest and replaced by John Dudley, Earl of Warwick, who became Lord President of the Council and Great Master of the Kingís Household. Edward VI was a protestant King and when he fell ill in February 1553, he worried that his half sister Mary, who was Catholic, would succeed him. To counter this he put together a Devise for the Succession that would see his cousin Lady Jane Grey succeed him. King Edward VI died in Greenwich Palace at the age of 15 on July 6, 1553, and Lady Jane Grey was proclaimed Queen.

 
Queen Victoria

Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria was born in London on May 24, 1819. Her father, the Duke of Kent and the fourth son of King George III, died in 1820, the same year as George III. Victoria ascended the throne of the United Kingdom on June 20, 1837, after her fatherís three elder brothers had died without leaving any legitimate children. Following her Coronation on June 28, 1838, Victoria became the first monarch to live in Buckingham Palace. Queen Victoria married Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha on February 10, 1840, four months after proposing to him. The couple had nine children in total and during her first pregnancy Victoria was shot at while travelling in a carriage with Albert. She was unharmed on this occasion and would survive a further five attempts on her life. Two deaths in 1861 affected her badly, the first was her mother, who died in March, and the second was her husband Albert, who died from typhoid fever in December. The loss of Albert led her into a life of mourning and seclusion; she wore black for the rest of her life and became known as the Widow of Windsor. Queen Victoria made an informal visit to the steam powered iron clad warship HMS Warrior when it guarded Osborne House on the north east coast of the Isle of Wight. Queen Victoria died on January 22, 1901, at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight.

Queen Elizabeth II

Queen Elizabeth II
Queen Elizabeth II was born in London on April 21, 1926. She became heir presumptive to the throne of the United Kingdom when her father, the Duke of York, acceded to the throne upon the abdication of his brother King Edward VIII. Elizabeth served in the Auxiliary Territorial Service during WW2 and married Philip Mountbatten, a former Prince of Greece and Denmark, in 1947. She has four children, Charles, Prince of Wales; Anne, Princess Royal; Andrew, Duke of York; and Edward, Earl of Wessex. On February 6, 1952, she became Queen Regnant of the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, Ceylon, New Zealand, Pakistan and South Africa as well as Head of the Commonwealth. Elizabethís coronation took place on June 2, 1953, in Westminster Abbey, London. On June 25, 1957, Elizabeth II opened the restored clipper Cutty Sark to the public. On July 11, 1976, Queen Elizabeth II and Philip received a 21 gun salute from USS Constitution as they entered Boston Harbor aboard the Royal Yacht Britannia. They also received a tour of the American frigate. On January 8, 2004, Elizabeth named Cunard's transatlantic liner RMS Queen Mary 2. Queen Elizabeth II marked her Silver Jubilee in 1977, her Golden Jubilee in 2002, her Diamond Jubilee in 2012 and, in 2017, Elizabeth became the first British Monarch to achieve a Sapphire Jubilee. As of 2018 she remains the longest reigning Queen Regnant in the world.

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Published 2018

Global Anchor Limited

Modified 2018

By James Drake

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